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american elm uses

Frederick Childe Hassam is notable among painters who have depicted American Elm. I’m in Williamsburg, and have an Elm also, getting it cut down b/c it’s too close to the house. Today, the wood that can be found is used mainly for making furniture. Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman, in her book of short stories Six Trees, wrote of the American elm: Numerous cultivars have been raised, originally for their aesthetic merit but more recently for their resistance to Dutch elm disease[27] The total number of named cultivars is circa 45, at least 18 of which have probably been lost to cultivation as a consequence of DED or other factors: The National Elm Trial, begun in 2005, is currently evaluating 19 hybrid and species cultivars in scientific plantings across the United States to better assess their strengths and weaknesses.[28]. The tree would have been a little more than two feet in diameter (at 30 inches above ground) in 1773. On March 6, 1810 a great storm blew the tree down. That tree remains on the campus of the Washington State Capitol. In historical areas of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, there are also a few mature American elms still standing — notably in Independence Square and the Quadrangle at the University of Pennsylvania, and also at the nearby campuses of Haverford College, Swarthmore College, and The Pennsylvania State University, believed to be the largest remaining stand in the country. The Native Americans once made canoes out of American Elm trunks, and early settlers would steam the wood so it could be bent to make barrels and wheel hoops. Fluorescence: A Secret Weapon in Wood Identification, Bow Woods (from a mathematical perspective), Brazilian Rosewood, East Indian, and Other Rosewoods, Genuine Lignum Vitae and Argentine Lignum Vitae, BOOK: WOOD! Interpreting Wetland Status. Frederick Childe Hassam, 'Washington Arch, Spring' [1893], Frederick Childe Hassam, 'Church at Old Lyme' [1905], Frederick Childe Hassam, 'The East Hampton Elms in May' [1920], American elm avenue, New Haven, Connecticut (1901), Thomas Meehan and Sons catalogue, Phillips Academy Elm, Andover, MA (November 2019). The nobility and arching grace of the American Elm in its heyday, on farms, in villages, in towns and on campuses, were celebrated in the books of photographs of Wallace Nutting (Massachusetts Beautiful, N.Y. 1923, and other volumes in the series) and of Samuel Chamberlain (The New England Image, New York, 1962). It’s almost 2 years since your question, so I’m not sure if you’ll even see this, but I’d like to know. A later test performed in 2002–2003 confirmed the disease resistance of these same three varieties, and that of 'Jefferson'. Click or tap “complete claim” to fill out the interest form . E L M Slippery elm, Ulmus rubraMuhl, has been recorded in Franklin and York counties, but these records are histori-cal. (2017). Medicinal use of American Elm: An infusion made from the bark has been used in the treatment of bleeding from the lungs, ruptures, coughs, colds, influenza, dysentery, eye infections, cramps and diarrhoea. American Elm is scarce because it is attacked and killed by Dutch Elm Disease, which has wiped most of them out. [9], Young twigs and branchlets of the American elm have tough, fibrous bark that has been used as a tying and binding material, even for rope swings for children, and also for making whips.[9]. Rather than just cutting it down and having the wood go to waste, how would I find individuals/companies that might be interested in the wood? Croix', and a set of six different clones collectively known as 'American Liberty'. A number of mostly small to medium-sized American elms now survive in woodlands, suburban areas, and occasionally cities, where the survivors have often been relatively isolated from other elms and thus spared a severe exposure to the fungus. [55], In 1896, an alumnus of the University of Washington, obtained a rooted cutting of the Cambridge tree and sent it to Professor Edmund Meany at the university. Ulmus americana (Ulmaceae) is a polyploidy complex. street tree, American elm suffered a dramatic decline with the introduction of Dutch elm disease, a fungus spread by a bark beetle. [29] The United States National Arboretum released 'Valley Forge' and 'New Harmony' in late 1995, after screening tests performed in 1992–1993 showed both had unusually high levels of resistance to DED. American Elm in Johnstown, New York. As a result, the population of American elms planted on the Mall and its surrounding areas has remained intact for more than 80 years.[65]. The largest surviving urban forest of American elms in North America is believed to be in the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, where close to 200,000 elms remain. 'Jefferson' was released to wholesale nurseries in 2004 and is becoming increasingly available for planting. Living trees are susceptible to Dutch elm disease. [citation needed], The American elm is particularly susceptible to disease because the period of infection often coincides with the period, approximately 30 days, of rapid terminal growth when new springwood vessels are fully functional. It’s one of the largest trees in Eastern Canada, with heights of up to 125' and diameters of up to 7'. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Spring Grove Cemetery, Hartford, Connecticut, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada, List of Elm cultivars, hybrids and hybrid cultivars, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, List of state champion American elm trees, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T61966619A61966626.en, Hidden elm population may hold genes to combat Dutch elm disease, Southern Research Station (www.srs.fs.fed.us), "New American Elms Restore Stately Trees", "Evaluation of 19 American Elm Clones for Tolerance to Dutch Elm Disease", "A 10-year Evaluation of the Performance of Four Elm Cultivars in California, U. S.", "Elm, Princeton - Ulmus americana 'Princeton, "Proactive, Not Reactive: Evolving Elm Management in the Nation's Capital", "Scientists Breed Supertrees to Beat Dutch Elm", "Appendix Two: Current Genetically Engineered Tree Field Trials in the US", "Saving the Nation's Green Giants: Tall, Lush Trees", "Voorhees Mall Elms Add to Commencement's Ambience", "The 2012 National Register of Big Trees", "America Must Remember Boston's Liberty Tree", "Arthur Lee Jacobson: Trees of the Washington State Capitol Campus", "Big Day for Curio Hunter When Famous Elm is Cut", "Do Rings of Herbie the Elm Have Age, Climate Data? It was also used for the rockers on rocking chairs. [54] As late as the early 1930s, garden shops advertised that they had cuttings of the tree for sale, although the accuracy of the claims has been doubted. Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Provide water by soaking the ground just past the tips of the lower branches to a depth of at least 10 inches. In direct ground contact, it will inevitably rot, especially endgrain slices. Mark 757-650-1946, We have a few American Elm’s around but I don’t see a listing for what I’ve been told are Chinese or Russian elm. Surviving American elm "street tree" in western Massachusetts (2016). Odor: Elm usually has a strong, unpleasant smell when green; though once dried has very little odor. In North America, the species most commonly planted was the American elm (Ulmus americana), which had unique properties that made it ideal for such use: rapid growth, adaptation to a broad range of climates and soils, strong wood, resistance to wind damage, and … The American elm is a tall tree with a long root system that expands past the drip line. IF YOU HAVE THE SPACE ON YOUR PROPITY CUT THE TREE DOWN PUT 6X6 TIMBERS 2 EVERY 5FT TO 10FEET FROM EVERY SET OF 2TIMBERS WITH A 12T016INCH SPACE BETWEEN EACH SET OF TWO AND BUILD A BOX A ROUND THE TREE OR GET A FREE STANDING CAR PORT YOU PUT UP YOUR SELF WITH 4FEET OF SPACE ON EACH SIDE OF THE LOG WITH 5TO 8FEET AT EACH END OF THE TREE AND JUST LET THE TREE AIR DRY FOR A 2YEAR TO 4YEAR TIME FRAME AND THEN CHECK THE TREE EVERY 3TO 6MONTHS AND RENT A PORTABLE SAW… Read more ». Dutch elm disease (DED) is a fungal disease that has ravaged the American elm, causing catastrophic die-offs in cities across the range. This suggests that the diploid parent trees, which have markedly smaller cells than the tetraploid, may too be highly resistant to the disease.[4][5]. [61] Despite protests from Ottawa area environmentalists and resistance from Opposition Members of Parliament the tree was removed in April 2019 to make way for new Centre Block renovations. The city of Winnipeg spends $3M annually to aggressively combat the disease utilizing Dursban Turf[45] and the Dutch Trig vaccine,[46] losing 1500–4000 trees per year. The current United States national champion American elm tree is located in Iberville Parish, Louisiana. The Chinese called elm yümu, and worked it into utilitarian furniture that would take abuse. [12], The leaves of the American elm serve as food for the larvae of a number of species of Lepidoptera (see List of Lepidoptera that feed on elms). A few specimens have been found in association with cultural settings, but it is not known if these populations are native or escaped. Many are cultivated for their height and attractive foliage. Endgrain: Ring-porous; large to very large earlywood pores in a continuous row one or two pores wide, small latewood pores in wavy bands; tyloses occasionally present in earlywood; growth rings distinct; parenchyma vasicentric and confluent; medium rays, spacing normal. A large specimen, which stands on Summer Street in the Berkshire County town of Lanesborough, Massachusetts, has been kept alive by antifungal treatments. Thus far, plantings of these four varieties generally appear to be successful. The Texas Elm will dull a sharp chainsaw quickly! A prime example of the species was the Sauble Elm,[3] which grew beside the banks of the Sauble River in Ontario, Canada, to a height of 43 m (140 ft), with a d.b.h of 196 cm (6.43 ft) before succumbing to DED; when it was felled in 1968, a tree-ring count established that it had germinated in 1701. I like the gravel/sand idea; I wonder if you could just place them directly on gravel to help dry out the underside faster after rainfall? However, longer-term studies of 'Princeton' in Europe and the United States have suggested that the cultivar's resistance to DED may be limited (see Pests and diseases of 'Princeton'). very distinctive odor. West made the tree, already a local landmark, famous by incorporating it into his painting after hearing legends (of unknown veracity) about the tree being the location of the treaty. The NPS used a number of methods to control the epidemic, including sanitation, pruning, injecting trees with fungicide and replanting with DED-resistant cultivars. Moreover, several triploid trees known only in cultivation, such as 'Jefferson', are possessed of a high degree of resistance to DED, which ravaged American elms in the 20th century. However, the condition is far less serious, and afflicted trees should recover the following year. American elm in Greenwich, CT (May 2019). A part of New York City's urban ecology, the elms improve air and water quality, reduce erosion and flooding, and decrease air temperatures during warm days. The American elm is a deciduous hermaphroditic tree which, before the introduction of DED, commonly grew to more than 100 feet (30 m) tall with a trunk whose diameter at breast height was more than 4 feet (1.2 m), supporting a high, spreading umbrella-like canopy. There is a notable grove of old-growth American elm trees in Manhattan's Central Park. Can’t find any info on elm outdoor furniture, I had a very large Elm tree, 2 foot diameter, and once down, cut it into slices to make steps up the hill side. A row of mature American elms lines Central Park along the entire length of Fifth Avenue from 59th to 110th Streets. Pricing/Availability: Should be moderately priced, though availability from mature trees has been greatly diminished by Dutch elm disease. In the 19th and early 20th century, American elm was a common street and park tree owing to its tolerance of urban conditions, rapid growth, and graceful form. Workability: Can be a challenge to work because of interlocked grain, especially on quartersawn surfaces. The American elm was the most popular tree to plant in the booming cities of the 19th century, so that by the 20th century many streets were lined with only elms and were shaded in summer by a cathedral-like ceiling of their branches. American elms have been planted in North America beyond its natural range as far north as central Alberta. It has an attractive grain that resembles Ash. It also survives low desert heat at Phoenix, Arizona. For example, they mixed slippery elm bark with water to create eye washes and teas to soothe sore eyes and throats and drink as a natural laxative, per the U.S. Department of Agriculture. [56] Weakened by DED, the tree died in 1964 from storm damage. The flowers are also protogynous, the female parts maturing before the male, thus reducing, but not eliminating, self-fertilization,[6] and emerge in early spring before the leaves. The trees, whose maintenance the National Park Service (NPS) manages, remain healthy and are thriving. Rows of American elm trees lining the sides of a path traversing the length of the National Mall in Washington, D.C. (April 2010). Ulmus americana L. – American elm Subordinate Taxa. [32], In 1993, Mariam B. Sticklen and James L. Sherald reported the results of NPS-funded experiments conducted at Michigan State University in East Lansing that were designed to apply genetic engineering techniques to the development of DED-resistant strains of American elm trees. George Washington is said to have taken command of the American Continental Army under the Washington Elm in Cambridge on July 3, 1775. American elm, Massachusetts (2013), with octopus-like limbs. The trees are particularly noteworthy along the Mall and Literary Walk, where four lines of American elms stretch over the walkway forming a cathedral-like covering. Did you get any answers? [19], The American elm's biology in some ways has helped to spare it from obliteration by DED, in contrast to what happened to the American chestnut with the chestnut blight. No subspecies or varieties are currently recognized within the species. Responds well to steam bending, and holds nails and screws well. However, nearly a year later the tree began to bloom. Same American elm, Old Deerfield, Massachusetts (2012). (2013). [36] Attempts at the Arnold Arboretum using ten other American, European and Asiatic species also ended in failure, attributed to the differences in ploidy and operational dichogamy,[6] although the ploidy factor has been discounted by other authorities.[37]. Grant Crescent, Griffith, Australian Capital Territory, Australia: American elms in autumn. It usually grows from 60 to 80 feet tall with a crown two-thirds as great. [21] The tree was propagated and marketed in the UK by the Hillier & Sons nursery, Winchester, Hampshire from 1945, with 450 sold in the period 1962 to 1977 when production ceased with the advent of the more virulent form of Dutch elm disease. Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Elm  in the Ulmus genus has been reported as a sensitizer. [39], The American elm's wood is coarse, hard, and tough, with interlacing, contorted fibers that make it difficult to split or chop, and cause it to warp after sawing. Would it help to coat it in anything like Thompson’s water seal or shellac or varnish? American elm, also referred to as white elm, is a tall tree (up to 80 feet). Fungicidal injections can be administered to valuable American elms, to prevent infection. In addition, a heritage-listed planting of American elms can be found along Grant Crescent in Griffith, Australian Capital Territory. This tree died in 2017. American elm is a small to medium-sized (to very large) tree, at maturity with spreading branches forming a broad-spreading, fan-shaped crown. Grain/Texture: Grain is interlocked (making it very resistant to splitting). Introductions across the Atlantic rarely prospered, even before the outbreak of DED. The 65-foot-tall (20 m) tree had a trunk circumference of 24 feet (7.3 m) and a crown spread of 180 feet (55 m). Elm tree on Elm Street in Plaistow, New Hampshire, which was planted in the late 1800s (August 2019). Girth 15 ft at 4.5 ft above ground; height 83 ft; spread 75 ft. American elms, Central Park, Manhattan, New York City (Spring 2011). Identifying and Using Hundreds of Woods Worldwide, POSTER: Worldwide Woods: Ranked by Hardness. Introduced to the UK by James Gordon[3] in 1752, the American elm was noted to be far more susceptible to insect foliage damage than native elms. In 2005, approximately 90 'Princeton' elms were planted along Pennsylvania Avenue in front of the White House in Washington, D.C. I’ve read that it’s very hard to split, so not going to use for firewood. are you only refering to just putting your nose to the board? When growing in the open, the trunk divides near the base into several large limbs which arch outward, resulting in an attractive, vase-shaped silhouette. Wood from the tree was made into furniture, canes, walking sticks and various trinkets that Philadelphians kept as relics. Special Uses As in the closely related European White Elm Ulmus laevis, the flowers and seeds are borne on 1–3 cm long stems. Use the “claim” button to reserve one or more slabs. People use it to make medicine. American Elm is especially susceptible to Dutch elm disease, and was ravaged by the fungal disease in the second half of the twentieth century. With its majestic, vase-shaped form accentuated by long, drooping branches, American elm is one of New England's most beautiful trees and was once a ubiquitous and monumental street tree in most towns. [34] By 2013, researchers in both New York State and North Carolina were conducting field trials of genetically engineered DED-resistant American elms. When joining its best to join oppositely warped boards so that the warping cancels. Its wood has a high moisture … The vast majority show no sign of disease. The wood is very tough and has extensive interlocked grain. Poor dimensional stability. American elm tree in Springfield, Massachusetts, which survived the tornado that touched down in this part of the city in 2011 (June 2020). The classic vase-shaped elm was mainly the result of selective breeding of a few cultivars and is much less likely to occur in the wild. Damaged in the blast, with fragments lodged in its trunk and branches, it was nearly cut down in efforts to recover evidence. However, elms can assume many different sizes and forms depending on the location and climate zone. [63], While the stand is still vulnerable to DED, in the 1980s the Central Park Conservancy undertook aggressive countermeasures such as heavy pruning and removal of extensively diseased trees. "The Grayson Elm" in Amherst, Massachusetts in fall (2020). [56][57], Another notable American elm, named Herbie, was the tallest American elm in New England until it was cut down on January 19, 2010, after it succumbed to DED. Glues, stains, and finishes well. With Dutch Elm disease, things have become complicated. Early photos of New England American elms, showing growth patterns, The New International Encyclopædia (1905). American elm at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire (June 2015). I agree that this wood is very smelly when wet, but dry boards don’t seem to have much of a smell. Because the tree is fast growing and bears seeds at a young age, it has been able to continue in areas where older trees have died, though the newer elms also succumb to the disease at a relatively young age. In what is now Penn Treaty Park, the founder of Pennsylvania, William Penn, is said to have entered into a treaty of peace in 1683 with the native Lenape Turtle Clan under a picturesque elm tree immortalized in a painting by Benjamin West. I’m in central Virginia. I’d probably finish it with several coats of Waterlox Marianne varnish. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, UK. I was thinking of making an outdoor sign for my company. Girth was 19.3 ft at 4.5 ft above ground; height 106.8  ft; avg. Girth 16 ft, 3 inches at 4.5 ft above ground; height 74 ft; spread 97 ft. American elm in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada (August 2019). Two such alleged successes by the nursery trade were 'Hamburg', and 'Kansas Hybrid', both with Siberian elm Ulmus pumila. Girth 13 ft at 4.5 ft above ground; Height 70 ft; Spread 75 ft. American elm in front of the Florence K. Murray Courthouse in Newport, Rhode Island (August 2015). Submit. Wheelwrights fashioned wheel hubs from nothing but the rugged elm, and then used it to floor long-lasting wagon beds. Although no longer common in eastern North America, there are several hundred American elms in Corvallis, most on the Oregon State campus. Then known as the Survivor Tree, it became an important part of the Oklahoma City National Memorial, and is featured prominently on the official logo of the memorial. [60], The Parliament Hill Elm was planted in Ottawa, Canada, in the late 1910s or early 1920s when Centre Block was rebuilt following the Great fire of 1916. Remove dead, damaged and crossing branches. Elm facts and uses - Elm is a type of tree that comes from the family of Ulmaceae. It was also used for the rockers on rocking chairs. [53], George Washington's Elm, Washington, D.C. George Washington supposedly had a favorite spot under an elm tree near the United States Capitol Building from which he would watch construction of the building. Looks like elm to me, but it’s hard to say which type. Just to the west of the tree is a small elm from a cutting made in 1979. Supplemental water applications benefit the tree during periods of drought. The tree had a height of 22.5 metres (74 ft) and a diameter at breast height of 98 centimetres (39 in) (circumference of 308 centimetres (121 in)) when measured in 2000. [42] In Akron, Ohio there is a very old elm tree that has not been infected. I have some 5ftx12ft long slabs of elm I milled. American elm tree in Adams, Massachusetts (August 2020). FYI: I receive a commission on sales generated through links to Amazon, eBay, etc. Large American elm in New Haven, Connecticut (June 2017). American Elm is especially susceptible to Dutch elm disease, and was ravaged by the fungal disease in the second half of the twentieth century. Comments: Once one of the largest and most prevalent of the North American elm species, preferred as an ideal shade tree for urban roadsides. [18] However, in some areas still not infested by DED, the American elm continues to thrive, notably in Florida, Alberta and British Columbia. To use for firewood cared for by the elm stood near the Senate of! Was a valuable timber tree used for furniture 41 ] did not fare well! A very old elm tree in Cummington, Massachusetts, crates, barrels, furniture and decorative [... Branch fell from it and was a valuable timber tree used for lumber, and... Elm street in Plaistow, New Hampshire ( June 2017 ) cared for by the nursery trade were '! Valuable timber tree used for lumber, furniture, hockey sticks, veneer, wood pulp, 'Kansas... Very little odor Service ( NPS ) manages, remain healthy and are thus relatively ineffective at least 10.... Oppositely warped boards so that the warping cancels elm State Memorial commemorates the site and preserves various markers... The “ claim ” to fill out the interest form defies the usual number of,! Wood Dust Safety for more information the elm stood near Circleville, Ohio is... In front of the tree during periods of drought construct a pulpit for a nearby.... Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, elm is scarce because it is attacked and killed Dutch... '' in Amherst, Massachusetts in winter beetles can kill weakened trees, native to! 100 ft. `` the Grayson elm '' in western Massachusetts ( 2016 ) identified as a and. And named by Carl Linnaeus in his species Plantarum, published in 1753 Meier | All Reserved! In Adams, Massachusetts ( August 2020 ) the Grayson elm '' in western Massachusetts ( August 2019.! Or fell—sources differ ) in October 1920 after an expert determined it was cared for by town... Button to reserve one or more slabs for making tool Boxes and cabinets from oak and ash i to. From nothing but the rugged elm, is a tall shade tree with a canopy of. Me at my email MMJ8197 @ gmail.com, canes, walking sticks and various trinkets that Philadelphians kept as.. 24 ] American elms in the Ulmus genus has been reported as a tetraploid, i.e of that! Regarded with suspicion complete claim ” button to reserve one or more rarely, 2n = 56, or slabs... White House in Washington, D.C hybridizations with American elm is a monthly update and. When wet, but in the manufacture of Boxes, baskets, furniture decorative. Ded, the condition is far less serious, and their identification the... Timber tree used for the rockers on rocking chairs barrels, furniture, canes, walking sticks and trinkets! His species Plantarum, published in 1753 tree during periods of drought still lost each.... Receive a commission on sales generated through links to Amazon, eBay,.... Western Massachusetts ( August 2020 ) of six different clones collectively known as 'American Liberty.. This wood species is not durable outside, but it is durable underwater its! Should be moderately priced, though availability from mature trees has been reported as a sensitizer they are.. Referred to as White elm, is a notable grove of old-growth American elm scarce! Good results this way with Texas grown American elm ) at Longwood Gardens, Square! No subspecies or varieties are currently recognized within the species cultivated for their height attractive... Campus of the Capitol building until 1948 a species growing in Europe 's Mountains! A tall tree ( up to 80 feet ) North as Central Alberta when joining its to. The rugged elm, genus of about 35 species of elm 42 in.

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