�B �x�kk���.��4V;ޗ��v9��q�=No--�q�ҭ��ֿ�|v����W�#�y�TMm��Ү���9�C��i��j�.|����B�nhr���U��̊���#� (N�������c9׳�I�f�ʹ�m.KQ��K={�)Ň����� ~����8�_ߥ�g�-�o�lZ>�^������0�:�Ep*�;�~����7�A����Ͻ�}ıB��Y��6`��d������O;�׸��F)[��,�B�>�8R���S߱����\=*mն�np�U]���1��^�]���ۓM�`" The Spanish conquest ofthe Philippines in the 16th century is partofthe controversial "Columbian legacy"inworldhistory and history ofideas. Magellan landed on the island of Cebu, claiming the lands for Spain and naming them Islas de San Lazaro. In 1863 the Spanish government decreed that a system of free public primary education be established in the islands, which could have been interpreted as a threat to this monopoly. Magellan landed on the island of Cebu, claiming the lands for Spain and naming them Islas de San Lazaro. Over time the Chinese not only dominated trade but also dominated many of the trades, such as shipbuilding, on which trade was based, and outnumbered the Spanish. The Philippine Revolution is one of the most important events in the country’s history, awakening a proud sense of nationalism for generations of Filipinos to come. There was no legislative branch on that time since the laws of the islands were coming from Spain . Local "sugar barons"--- the owners of the sugar plantations--became a potent political and economic force by the end of the nineteenth century. The population of Negros tripled. The Muslim sultanate of Brunei was a very powerful kingdom in the16th century. PHILIPPINE HISTORY SPANISH ERA 2. Philippine History: Fashion from the Spanish Era Spanish Influence on Philippine Fashion When we speak about fashion or clothing during the Spanish Colonization of the Philippines, we would think baro’t saya, Maria Clara dress, barong tagalog and camisa de chino. Spanish rule was punctuated by periodic revolts, many of them involving Chinese who lived outside the walls of Manila in a place called the Parian. During this period in Philippine history starting in the 60’s architects started to merge modernist style with the use of traditional and local materials. Even though 12,000 Chinese were expelled in 1596, settlers continued to arrive from the mainland. The natives dwelt on houses made of bamboo and palm leaves, and were properly attired at all times. Discuss the following: a. Filipino American Relations 2. The Spanish conquistadores reigned for nearly 400 years until 1898 when the United States defeated Spain in the Spanish-American War. In a period of heavy struggle and conflict, Filipinos of different backgrounds united with a common goal: to resist colonialism. By 1867 there were 593 primary schools enrolling 138,990 students; by 1877 the numbers had grown to 1,608 schools and 177,113 students; and in 1898 there were 2,150 schools and over 200,000 students out of a total population of approximately 6 million. Philippine Literature During the Spanish Period 2. Meager progress on land distribution, marked with occasional rural uprisings, was achieved up to the mid 1980s. This topic about Pre-Spanish Period is a very exciting one because it will bring us back to the time when our ancestors are still enjoying the blessings of freedom to carve their own destiny under the heavens. 12. A Spanish attack was quickly repelled and Spanish leaders were beheaded and had their heads displayed on stakes. the spanish period (1565-1898) Historical Background It is an accepted belief that the Spanish colonization of the Philippines started in 1565 during the time of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi , the first Spanish governor-general in the Philippines . The only laws created in the Philippines are those who were ordered by the Governor General. Historical Overview of the Philippine Peso . CIVILISATION IN THE PHILIPPINES BEFORE THE SPANISH CONQUEST The history of the Philippine Islands is divided into three periods: the period prior to the Spanish conquest in 1531, the period under the Spanish rule from 1531-1898, and the period un­ der the American rule which began in 1898. The historical origins of the Philippine economy: a survey of recent research of the Spanish colonial eraJosep M. Fradera THE HISTORICAL ORIGINS OF THE PHILIPPINE ECONOMY: A SURVEY OF RECENT RESEARCH OF THE SPANISH COLONIAL ERA B J M. F Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain This article surveys recent research of the Spanish colonial era in the Philippines since the late eighteenth … Society 1. Ornaments 3. The Spaniards and their Filipino and Japanese allies then took their revenge and massacred 20,000 Chinese. For a while the Spaniards maintained a trading post on China but for the most part they relied on Chinese intermediaries to bring goods to Manila. Meager progress on land distribution, marked with occasional rural uprisings, was achieved up to the mid 1980s. One Muslim told the Los Angeles Times, “We do not consider ourselves Filipinos. Leave them to their cock-fighting and their indolence, and they will thank you more than if you load them down with old and new rights." 1521 - Ferdinand Magellan "discovers" the islands and names them: Archipelago of San Lazaro. We never surrendered.”. A comprehensive database of more than 15 philippine history quizzes online, test your knowledge with philippine history quiz questions. -During the American colonization period, Philippine literature reflected the ethos of its people under a new role. fOn June 12, 1898, Filipinos led by Emilio Aguinaldo declared independence. This declaration was opposed by the U.S. who had plans of taking over the colony. The missionary zeal to make the country an outpost of the Catholicism in spite of the fact that (even with unsparing exploitation), the Philippines was a financial liability as a colony. The next year the grateful Chinese returned the favor in the form of a trading vessel filled with gifts of silk, porcelain and other Chinese goods. Manila became the center of a major trade network that funneled goods from Southeast Asia, Japan, Indonesia, India and especially China to Europe. [Source: Library of Congress *], In the latter half of the nineteenth century, immigration into the archipelago, largely from the maritime province of Fujian on the southeastern coast of China, increased, and a growing proportion of Chinese settled in outlying areas. Philippine History and Society: Spanish Colonial Period These researches discuss the socio-political and historical developments in the Philippines under Spanish colonialism. Land rents--paid often by Chinese mestizo inquilinos, who planted cash crops for export--provided them with the sort of income that enabled many friars to live like princes in palatial establishments. Philippine Literature during Spanish Period The Philippine islands first came to the attention of Europeans with the Spanish expedition around the world led by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in 1521. The conquistador, especially its ecclesiastical arm, destroyed whatever written literature he could find, and hence rendered the system of writing inoperable. He was responsible for establishing peace with various indigenous tribes. %�쏢 The primary purpose of the Philippines was to trade New World silver for Chinese silk. Asian History; The Philippine Government During The Spanish Colonial Period. Philippine literature during the spanish period 1. Mindanao and other predominately Muslim islands in the southern Philippines were never conquered during 381 years of Spanish and American rule. In 1839 the government issued a decree granting them freedom of occupation and residence. Trade between Spain and the Philippines was via the Pacific Ocean to Mexico ( Manila to Acapulco ), and then across the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean to Spain ( Veracruz to Cádiz ). TIMELINE OF PHILIPPINE EDUCATION by Ss PRE-SPANISH TIME Use of Alibata o Baybayin SPANISH PERIOD Religious Congregations built schools Christian doctrines Promotion of Spanish language Imposition of Spanish culture 1521 1611 FOUNDING OF UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS (UST) Ferdinand Magellan landed in the Philippines. DURING THE SPANISH PERIOD 1521 The year when the Spanish Colonizers came with Ferdinand Magellan.. Miguel Lopez de Legazpi He is the first Spanish governor general.. Notes on Spanish Colonization The Conquistadors rendered all system writings inoperable. [Reading in the Philippine History] [Module 15 Week 15 Social, Political, Economic, and Cultural issues in Philippine History- Filipino American Relations] 1 Module 15 Week 15 Social, Political, Economic, and Cultural issues in Philippine History-Special Topic At the end of this module, you are expected to: 1. As the export economy grew and foreign contact increased, the mestizos and other members of this Filipino elite, known collectively as ilustrados, obtained higher education (in some cases abroad), entered professions such as law or medicine, and were particularly receptive to the liberal and democratic ideas that were beginning to reach the Philippines despite the efforts of the generally reactionary--and friar-dominated--Spanish establishment. If you are the copyright owner and would like this content removed from factsanddetails.com, please contact me. Philippine Literature in the Spanish Colonial Period. Chinese expulsion orders issued in 1755 and 1766 were repealed in 1788. Some of the indigenous people mixed with the Spanish, some were overwhelmed by them. Much of the international trade conducted by Spain in Asia was linked to Manila somehow and most of the rich and powerful had their homes here. The Philippines was administered by the Viceroyalty of New Spain in present-day Mexico but in many ways the Philippines was ruled by Catholic church. Mode of Dressing 2. As a result, many Chinese mestizos invested in land, particularly in Central Luzon. A Spanish trader named Diego de Bobadilla wrote: “A Spaniard who lost his nose through a certain illness, sent for a Chinaman to make him one wood, in order to hide the deformity. Much of the international trade conducted by Spain in Asia was linked to Manila somehow and most of the rich and powerful had their homes here. The one in 1603 was particularly nasty: some 6,000 armed Chinese set fire to Spanish settlement outside Manila and began marching on Manila itself. *, Chinese and Chinese Mestizos in the Philippines, In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, deep-seated Spanish suspicion of the Chinese gave way to recognition of their potentially constructive role in economic development. Objective: • To be able to understand how Literature started during the Spanish Period. The National Archives and Records Service has Philippine documents for the period 1898-1946. 6. In the following outline an endeavor is made to select those features only of that revenue system which have a true historical significance, as distinct from those which have a mere antiquarian interest. Houses 4. This is a comprehensive practice exam for a Philippine History book. The government monopoly on tobacco had been abolished in 1880, but Philippine cigars maintained their high reputation, popular throughout Victorian parlors in Britain, the European continent, and North America. Status of Women 6. The removal of legal restrictions on Chinese economic activity and the competition of new Chinese immigrants, however, drove a large number of mestizos out of the commercial sector in mid-nineteenth century. The Jesuits were given control of the teacher-training colleges. They introduced Catholicism, established a Walled City in Manila but ultimately they were disappointed because they couldn't find spices or gold (gold was only discovered in large quantities after the Americans arrived). The Spanish burned Igorot villages, destroyed their crops and raped their women, yet in 350 years of Spanish occupation the Igorot were never conquered. 90 important questions became the primary purpose of the Philippines, however, were control! 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philippine history spanish period pdf

The Philippines had a long colonial history, spanning the 16th to 20th century (1565 up to 1946). patriarchal Spanish Catholic Church. Philippine Muslims regard themselves as descendants of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu. HISTORY OF PHILIPPINE ART. During most of the Spanish colonial period, the Philippine economy depended on the Galleon Trade which was inaugurated in 1565 between Manila and Acapulco , Mexico . Time Period: 1863-1897 [The Trial of Andres Bonifacio: international title] The life of Andres Bonifacio - the other famous Philippine hero who started the revolution against Spain using guns and weapons as opposed to Jose Rizal's method of war. During most of the Spanish colonial period, the Philippine economy depended on the Galleon Trade which was inaugurated in 1565 between Manila and Acapulco , Mexico . the Spanish scholarly journal, Revista de Archivos, Bibliotecas y M?seos, Madrid (1871-). At the beginning of the nineteenth century, they composed about 5 percent of the total population of around 2.5 million and were concentrated in the most developed provinces of Central Luzon and in Manila and its environs. The Chinaman, attracted by the ease with which he made that gain, loaded a fine boatload of wooden noses the next year and returned to Manila.”, Growth of Plantation Agriculture in the Philippines, By the late nineteenth century, three crops--tobacco, abaca, and sugar--dominated Philippine exports. 11. During the Spanish colonization in the Philippines , the government was composed of two branches, the executive and the judicial. Mixed Marriages, Inheritance and Succession. Stay tuned for part 2 as that will discuss events from the Dagohoy revolt to the events around the 1870's. Marriage customs 7. The “Moro Wars” continued off and on for 300 years after the Spanish arrived. Converts to Catholicism and speakers of Filipino languages or Spanish rather than Chinese dialects, the mestizos enjoyed a legal status as subjects of Spain that was denied the Chinese. It is an accepted belief that the Spanish colonization of the Philippines started in 1565 during the time of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, the first Spanish governor-general in the Philippines. In the words of historian Edgar Vickberg, they were considered, unlike the mixed-Chinese of other Southeast Asian countries, not "a special kind of local Chinese" but "a special kind of Filipino. The history of the Philippines is believed to have begun with the arrival of the first humans using rafts or boats at least ... Philippine society and culture until the Doctrina Christiana of the late 16th century, written at the start of the Spanish period in both native Baybayin script and Spanish. Magellan landed on the island of Cebu, claiming the lands for Spain and naming them Islas de San Lazaro. Spanish reinforcements from the south saved for the Spaniards. About 30 or 40 junks, laden with goods arrived in the Philippines from China a year. Development of the archipelago was largely neglected. Spain colonized the Philippine Islands for 3 33 years, after which they ceded control to Their acceptance of Christianity acted both to pacify the population and bond them with the Spaniards. Manila was the heart of the Spanish colony in the Philippines. Pre-Spanish Period “This land is Ours God gave this land to us” Before the Spaniards came to the Philippines, Filipinos lived in villages or barangays ruled by chiefs or datus. Outside the walls was a a polyglot community of Filipinos, Chinese, Japanese and other foreigners. b. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 4.0 PHILIPPINE ARCHITECTURE Architecture of the Philippines The Spanish introduced the idea of land holding to native people—many of whom previously had limited notions about private property—and took control of large swaths of land owned for centuries by native groups. He set up friendly relations with some… Loney arranged liberal credit terms for local landlords to invest in the new crop, encouraged the migration of labor from the neighboring and overpopulated island of Panay, and introduced stream-driven sugar refineries that replaced the traditional method of producing low-grade sugar in loaves. Japanese Occupation Era. G. KARAGATAN - A poetic vehicle of socio-religious nature celebrated during the death of a person. Because of the growth of worldwide shipping, Philippine abaca, which was considered the best material for ropes and cordage, grew in importance and after 1850 alternated with sugar as the islands' most important export. This test consists of up to 90 important questions. Philippine Literature During the Spanish Period 2. The history of the Philippines is believed to have begun with the arrival of the first humans using rafts or boats at least 709,000 years ago as suggested by the discovery of Pleistocene stone tools and butchered animal remains associated with hominin activity. It ruled over all of Sarawak, Sabah and Borneo as well as part of the Sulu Islands and the Philippines. The history of the Philippines between 900 and 1565 begins with the creation of the Laguna Copperplate Inscription in 900 and ends with Spanish colonisation in 1565. This site contains quotes, articles, ebooks, and other related documents on Philippine historical studies. Many would say that … The Philippine Revolution is one of the most important events in the country’s history, awakening a proud sense of nationalism for generations of Filipinos to come. ... is a milestone in the history of Philippine letters. �1�4a�٪��2�Έ��ho��u~���9v����u��E���a67�I����xI?�@�y�f�y�Ѐz�j��QMh��~tXE����l� NÛ$C��;���WGE�q�����5@D���X�ӎ�鈦��%��a�N����3� ���. The Spanish had initially hoped to turn the Philippines into another Spice Island but they soon found that the island’s soil, terrain and climate were not suited for growing spices. Although church policy dictated that parishes of countries converted to Christianity be relinquished by the religious orders to indigenous diocesan priests, in 1870 only 181 out of 792 parishes in the islands had Filipino priests. (PDF) PHILIPPINE HISTORY Pre Pre - -Colonial Period ... ... bleblebleah Spanish Colonization (1521 - 1898) 3. The Philippines had a long colonial history, spanning the 16th to 20th century (1565 up to 1946). *. Trade was stubbled upon sort of by accident. The governor, administartors, friars, merchants, military officials, priests and soldiers from Spain and some of their families all resided within the walls. Japanese Colonization (1941-1945) 5. This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been authorized by the copyright owner. @���ș�x�g� ���j���+!��ć��_���O��n���ֿ��n��ʨZ������#W)�������'~WHSպ8�8�BV�m*銓���ʹ�+'�������v�J9o+-���Z�]e�vb�Z9��sR����*꺑�7p�n������m�ٽ0W���î���յ~�5R�ͮ�@ݎE�&ذ�M���&c�&X_���� >�B �x�kk���.��4V;ޗ��v9��q�=No--�q�ҭ��ֿ�|v����W�#�y�TMm��Ү���9�C��i��j�.|����B�nhr���U��̊���#� (N�������c9׳�I�f�ʹ�m.KQ��K={�)Ň����� ~����8�_ߥ�g�-�o�lZ>�^������0�:�Ep*�;�~����7�A����Ͻ�}ıB��Y��6`��d������O;�׸��F)[��,�B�>�8R���S߱����\=*mն�np�U]���1��^�]���ۓM�`" The Spanish conquest ofthe Philippines in the 16th century is partofthe controversial "Columbian legacy"inworldhistory and history ofideas. Magellan landed on the island of Cebu, claiming the lands for Spain and naming them Islas de San Lazaro. In 1863 the Spanish government decreed that a system of free public primary education be established in the islands, which could have been interpreted as a threat to this monopoly. Magellan landed on the island of Cebu, claiming the lands for Spain and naming them Islas de San Lazaro. Over time the Chinese not only dominated trade but also dominated many of the trades, such as shipbuilding, on which trade was based, and outnumbered the Spanish. The Philippine Revolution is one of the most important events in the country’s history, awakening a proud sense of nationalism for generations of Filipinos to come. There was no legislative branch on that time since the laws of the islands were coming from Spain . Local "sugar barons"--- the owners of the sugar plantations--became a potent political and economic force by the end of the nineteenth century. The population of Negros tripled. The Muslim sultanate of Brunei was a very powerful kingdom in the16th century. PHILIPPINE HISTORY SPANISH ERA 2. Philippine History: Fashion from the Spanish Era Spanish Influence on Philippine Fashion When we speak about fashion or clothing during the Spanish Colonization of the Philippines, we would think baro’t saya, Maria Clara dress, barong tagalog and camisa de chino. Spanish rule was punctuated by periodic revolts, many of them involving Chinese who lived outside the walls of Manila in a place called the Parian. During this period in Philippine history starting in the 60’s architects started to merge modernist style with the use of traditional and local materials. Even though 12,000 Chinese were expelled in 1596, settlers continued to arrive from the mainland. The natives dwelt on houses made of bamboo and palm leaves, and were properly attired at all times. Discuss the following: a. Filipino American Relations 2. The Spanish conquistadores reigned for nearly 400 years until 1898 when the United States defeated Spain in the Spanish-American War. In a period of heavy struggle and conflict, Filipinos of different backgrounds united with a common goal: to resist colonialism. By 1867 there were 593 primary schools enrolling 138,990 students; by 1877 the numbers had grown to 1,608 schools and 177,113 students; and in 1898 there were 2,150 schools and over 200,000 students out of a total population of approximately 6 million. Philippine Literature During the Spanish Period 2. Meager progress on land distribution, marked with occasional rural uprisings, was achieved up to the mid 1980s. This topic about Pre-Spanish Period is a very exciting one because it will bring us back to the time when our ancestors are still enjoying the blessings of freedom to carve their own destiny under the heavens. 12. A Spanish attack was quickly repelled and Spanish leaders were beheaded and had their heads displayed on stakes. the spanish period (1565-1898) Historical Background It is an accepted belief that the Spanish colonization of the Philippines started in 1565 during the time of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi , the first Spanish governor-general in the Philippines . The only laws created in the Philippines are those who were ordered by the Governor General. Historical Overview of the Philippine Peso . CIVILISATION IN THE PHILIPPINES BEFORE THE SPANISH CONQUEST The history of the Philippine Islands is divided into three periods: the period prior to the Spanish conquest in 1531, the period under the Spanish rule from 1531-1898, and the period un­ der the American rule which began in 1898. The historical origins of the Philippine economy: a survey of recent research of the Spanish colonial eraJosep M. Fradera THE HISTORICAL ORIGINS OF THE PHILIPPINE ECONOMY: A SURVEY OF RECENT RESEARCH OF THE SPANISH COLONIAL ERA B J M. F Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain This article surveys recent research of the Spanish colonial era in the Philippines since the late eighteenth … Society 1. Ornaments 3. The Spaniards and their Filipino and Japanese allies then took their revenge and massacred 20,000 Chinese. For a while the Spaniards maintained a trading post on China but for the most part they relied on Chinese intermediaries to bring goods to Manila. Meager progress on land distribution, marked with occasional rural uprisings, was achieved up to the mid 1980s. One Muslim told the Los Angeles Times, “We do not consider ourselves Filipinos. Leave them to their cock-fighting and their indolence, and they will thank you more than if you load them down with old and new rights." 1521 - Ferdinand Magellan "discovers" the islands and names them: Archipelago of San Lazaro. We never surrendered.”. A comprehensive database of more than 15 philippine history quizzes online, test your knowledge with philippine history quiz questions. -During the American colonization period, Philippine literature reflected the ethos of its people under a new role. fOn June 12, 1898, Filipinos led by Emilio Aguinaldo declared independence. This declaration was opposed by the U.S. who had plans of taking over the colony. The missionary zeal to make the country an outpost of the Catholicism in spite of the fact that (even with unsparing exploitation), the Philippines was a financial liability as a colony. The next year the grateful Chinese returned the favor in the form of a trading vessel filled with gifts of silk, porcelain and other Chinese goods. Manila became the center of a major trade network that funneled goods from Southeast Asia, Japan, Indonesia, India and especially China to Europe. [Source: Library of Congress *], In the latter half of the nineteenth century, immigration into the archipelago, largely from the maritime province of Fujian on the southeastern coast of China, increased, and a growing proportion of Chinese settled in outlying areas. Philippine History and Society: Spanish Colonial Period These researches discuss the socio-political and historical developments in the Philippines under Spanish colonialism. Land rents--paid often by Chinese mestizo inquilinos, who planted cash crops for export--provided them with the sort of income that enabled many friars to live like princes in palatial establishments. Philippine Literature during Spanish Period The Philippine islands first came to the attention of Europeans with the Spanish expedition around the world led by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in 1521. The conquistador, especially its ecclesiastical arm, destroyed whatever written literature he could find, and hence rendered the system of writing inoperable. He was responsible for establishing peace with various indigenous tribes. %�쏢 The primary purpose of the Philippines was to trade New World silver for Chinese silk. Asian History; The Philippine Government During The Spanish Colonial Period. Philippine literature during the spanish period 1. Mindanao and other predominately Muslim islands in the southern Philippines were never conquered during 381 years of Spanish and American rule. In 1839 the government issued a decree granting them freedom of occupation and residence. Trade between Spain and the Philippines was via the Pacific Ocean to Mexico ( Manila to Acapulco ), and then across the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean to Spain ( Veracruz to Cádiz ). TIMELINE OF PHILIPPINE EDUCATION by Ss PRE-SPANISH TIME Use of Alibata o Baybayin SPANISH PERIOD Religious Congregations built schools Christian doctrines Promotion of Spanish language Imposition of Spanish culture 1521 1611 FOUNDING OF UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS (UST) Ferdinand Magellan landed in the Philippines. DURING THE SPANISH PERIOD 1521 The year when the Spanish Colonizers came with Ferdinand Magellan.. Miguel Lopez de Legazpi He is the first Spanish governor general.. Notes on Spanish Colonization The Conquistadors rendered all system writings inoperable. [Reading in the Philippine History] [Module 15 Week 15 Social, Political, Economic, and Cultural issues in Philippine History- Filipino American Relations] 1 Module 15 Week 15 Social, Political, Economic, and Cultural issues in Philippine History-Special Topic At the end of this module, you are expected to: 1. As the export economy grew and foreign contact increased, the mestizos and other members of this Filipino elite, known collectively as ilustrados, obtained higher education (in some cases abroad), entered professions such as law or medicine, and were particularly receptive to the liberal and democratic ideas that were beginning to reach the Philippines despite the efforts of the generally reactionary--and friar-dominated--Spanish establishment. If you are the copyright owner and would like this content removed from factsanddetails.com, please contact me. Philippine Literature in the Spanish Colonial Period. Chinese expulsion orders issued in 1755 and 1766 were repealed in 1788. Some of the indigenous people mixed with the Spanish, some were overwhelmed by them. Much of the international trade conducted by Spain in Asia was linked to Manila somehow and most of the rich and powerful had their homes here. The Philippines was administered by the Viceroyalty of New Spain in present-day Mexico but in many ways the Philippines was ruled by Catholic church. Mode of Dressing 2. As a result, many Chinese mestizos invested in land, particularly in Central Luzon. A Spanish trader named Diego de Bobadilla wrote: “A Spaniard who lost his nose through a certain illness, sent for a Chinaman to make him one wood, in order to hide the deformity. Much of the international trade conducted by Spain in Asia was linked to Manila somehow and most of the rich and powerful had their homes here. The one in 1603 was particularly nasty: some 6,000 armed Chinese set fire to Spanish settlement outside Manila and began marching on Manila itself. *, Chinese and Chinese Mestizos in the Philippines, In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, deep-seated Spanish suspicion of the Chinese gave way to recognition of their potentially constructive role in economic development. Objective: • To be able to understand how Literature started during the Spanish Period. The National Archives and Records Service has Philippine documents for the period 1898-1946. 6. In the following outline an endeavor is made to select those features only of that revenue system which have a true historical significance, as distinct from those which have a mere antiquarian interest. Houses 4. This is a comprehensive practice exam for a Philippine History book. The government monopoly on tobacco had been abolished in 1880, but Philippine cigars maintained their high reputation, popular throughout Victorian parlors in Britain, the European continent, and North America. Status of Women 6. The removal of legal restrictions on Chinese economic activity and the competition of new Chinese immigrants, however, drove a large number of mestizos out of the commercial sector in mid-nineteenth century. The Jesuits were given control of the teacher-training colleges. 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